Frédéric Gardi

Vice President Products at Innovation 24, subsidiary of Bouygues

Product Manager of LocalSolver

President of the French Operations Research and Decision Support Society (ROADEF)

Member of the Comité National de Recherche Scientifique (CoNRS), section Computer Science (06)

Vice President Products at Innovation 24, subsidiary of Bouygues

Product Manager of LocalSolver

President of the French Operations Research and Decision Support Society (ROADEF)

Member of the Comité National de Recherche Scientifique (CoNRS), section Computer Science (06)

Started 10 years ago, my activities in "operational research" focus on varied problems and business areas : workforce scheduling, financial planning, car sequencing, vehicle routing, marketing campaign planning, TV media planning, energy management, construction site planning (buildings, roads, railways), maintenance planning for large infrastructures. Parallel to my operational research activities in enterprise (see my curriculum vitae for more details), I pursue a basic and applied research activity in combinatorial optimization. After a PhD thesis devoted to issues related to workforce and job scheduling mixing algorithmics and graph theory [5, 9, 11, 12, 15, 16, 17], I have worked on problems arising in banking, and more particularly in real-estate financial planning [7, 13]. Since then, I have focused much of my research on

Since 2004, we draw with Bertrand Estellon and Karim Nouioua the outlines of a methodology to tackle systematically combinatorial optimization problems by local search, in particular large-scale real-life problems. This methodology advocates a pure (without hybridization) and direct (without decomposition) approach, even for mixed-variable problems with discrete and continuous decision variables. Contrary to the idea now prevalent that "local search = metaheuristics", our methodology focuses on the diversification by the moves and on the performance of the evaluation machinery behind these moves. In this way, we would say that "local search = diversified neighborhoods + incremental algorithmics" (by "diversified", we mean multiple, variable-size, and rich). Our methodology also provide keys to ensure the quality of a software based on local search (reliability, maintainability). Ultimately, this one aims at industrializing the design and engineering of optimization software based on local search, numerous in industry, in order to reduce their development, integration and maintenance costs (while increasing their performances). This methodology has been successfully applied during several operational projects with high economic stakes, particularly at Bouygues e-lab [2, 4], as well as during several international OR competitions (2005, 2007, 2010 ROADEF Challenges) [6, 8, 10, 14]. Some of the developed software, today operational, offers significant returns on investment.

In 2007 I initiated a research project to develop a model-and-run solver for combinatorial optimization based on the local search paradigm. Relying on a suitable declarative formalism, the user models his problem and the solver resolves it autonomously by local search. Hence, we seek to fill gaps in classical tree-search solvers, powerless against large-scale highly-combinatorial problems. A team has rallied around this project: Thierry Benoist, Bertrand Estellon, Karim Nouioua, as well as Romain Megel and Julien Darlay. Our software LocalSolver [3], operational since the end of 2009, allows to solve in minutes some combinatorial optimization problems that integer or constraint programming cannot resolve within reasonable running times. Since 2012, LocalSolver is commercialized by Innovation 24, subsidiary of the Bouygues Group, in partnership with Aix-Marseille University and CNRS (LIF Marseille). Nevertheless, this one remains free for teaching and non-profit research. Now, we are working with the team to develop LocalSolver toward a generalized, all-in-one, hybrid mathematical programming solver based on neighborhood search for large-scale, real-world mixed-variable non-convex optimization. The 4.0 release of LocalSolver is a first step in this way.

The following monograph provides a synthesis of our works on local search and mathematical programming:

F. Gardi, T. Benoist, J. Darlay, B. Estellon, R. Megel (2014).

FOCUS Series in Computer Engineering, ISTE Wiley, 112 pages.

ISBN 9781848216860

Below are some short communications which give a good overview of our works:

International Federation of Operational Research Societies (IFORS) Newsletter, September 2013, pp. 19-20.

Integrating local search techniques into a mathematical programming solver

Bulletin of the French Operations Research Society (ROADEF), Number 28, Spring-Summer 2012.

La RO, c'est quoi : des théorèmes ou des logiciels ? (in French)

Bulletin of the French Operations Research Society (ROADEF), Number 27, Autumn-Fall 2011.

LocalSolver: de la recherche locale en programmation mathématique (in French)

1st Junior and Senior Prize of 2005 ROADEF Challenge (with Bertrand Estellon and Karim Nouioua), awarded by the French Operations Research Society (ROADEF) and the companies EURODECISION and RENAULT, for the best software for sequencing cars in RENAULT plants (55 participating teams from 15 countries, 12 finalists from 7 countries: Bosnia-Herzegovina, Brazil, Canada, France, Germany, Netherlands, Poland).

Excerpt from the Aix-Marseille II University newsletter

Excerpt from the magazine OR/MS Today

Excerpt from the magazine Industrie et Technologies

2nd Senior Prize of 2007 ROADEF Challenge (with Bertrand Estellon and Karim Nouioua), awarded by the ROADEF and the companies EURODECISION, FRANCE TELECOM and ILOG, for the best software for scheduling maintenance interventions on the FRANCE TELECOM network (35 participating teams, 11 finalists).

Finalist of 2009 ROADEF Challenge (with Bertrand Estellon), organized by the ROADEF and the company AMADEUS, on disruption management for commercial aviation (29 participating teams, 9 finalists).

Finalist of 2010 ROADEF/EURO Challenge (with Karim Nouioua), organized by the ROADEF and the company EDF, on medium-term management of the French thermal power park (44 participating teams from 25 countries, 16 finalists from 11 countries). Ranked 1st on instances A (qualification stage) and on instances B (final stage).

1st Prize for "Industrial Applications" at ROADEF 2011 (with Karim Nouioua), yearly meeting of the French Operations Research Society, for the communication "High-performance local search for the mid-term management of the French nuclear power park".

Finalist of 2012 ROADEF/EURO Challenge (with the LocalSolver team), organized by the ROADEF and the company GOOGLE, on the reassignment of processes to machines (82 participating teams coming from 33 countries, 30 finalists). LocalSolver qualified for the final round with 25th: the LSP model, developed in 1 day of work, lies over 100 lines.

2012 Robert Faure Prize, awarded every 3 years by the ROADEF, to a young researcher under 35. This prize awards an original contribution in the field of operations research. A particular attention is given to works which couple the development of theoretical methods to applications, in the spirit of the works of Professor Robert Faure, pioneer in Operations Research in France.

Finalist of 2012 EURO Excellence in Practice Award (with Thierry Benoist and Antoine Jeanjean), awarded by the Association of European Operational Research Societies (EURO). Selected among 6 finalists over 56 submissions (without geographical limit) for our paper "Lessons learned from 15 years of operations research for French TV channel TF1" in

FOCUS Series in Computer Engineering, ISTE Wiley, 112 pages.

ISBN 9781848216860

Car sequencing is NP-hard: a short proof.

[2] T. Benoist, F. Gardi, A. Jeanjean (2012).

Lessons learned from 15 years of operations research for French TV channel TF1.

[3] T. Benoist, B. Estellon, F. Gardi, R. Megel, K. Nouioua (2011).

LocalSolver 1.x: a black-box local-search solver for 0-1 programming.

[4] T. Benoist, B. Estellon, F. Gardi, A. Jeanjean (2011).

Randomized local search for real-life inventory routing.

[5] F. Gardi (2011).

On partitioning interval graphs into proper interval subgraphs and related problems.

[6] F. Gardi, K. Nouioua (2011).

Local search for mixed-integer nonlinear optimization: a methodology and an application.

In

(P. Merz, J.-K. Hao, eds.),

Springer, Berlin, Germany. [pdf]

[7] F. Gardi (2010).

Optimisation de plans de financement immobiliers.

[8] B. Estellon, F. Gardi, K. Nouioua (2009).

High-performance local search for task scheduling with human resource allocation.

In

(T. Stützle, M. Birattari, H.H. Hoos, eds.),

Springer, Berlin, Germany. [pdf] [pdf]

[9] F. Gardi (2009).

Mutual exclusion scheduling with interval graphs or related classes. Part I.

[10] B. Estellon, F. Gardi, K. Nouioua (2008).

Two local search approaches for solving real-life car sequencing problems.

In

[11] F. Gardi (2008).

Mutual exclusion scheduling with interval graphs or related classes. Part II.

[12] F. Gardi (2007).

The Roberts characterization of proper and unit interval graphs.

[13] F. Gardi, A. David (2007).

Optimisation de plans de financement immobiliers : de la recherche opérationnelle en actuariat bancaire.

[14] B. Estellon, F. Gardi, K. Nouioua (2006).

Large neighborhood improvements for solving car sequencing problems.

In

[15] F. Gardi (2006).

Mutual exclusion scheduling with interval graphs or related classes: complexity and algorithms.

[16] F. Gardi (2004).

On partitioning interval and circular-arc graphs into proper interval subgraphs with applications.

In

(M. Farach-Colton, ed.),

Springer, Berlin, Germany. [pdf]

[17] F. Gardi (2003).

Efficient algorithms for disjoint matchings among intervals and related problems.

In

(C.S. Calude, M.J. Dinneen, V. Vajnovszki, eds.),

Springer, Berlin, Germany. [pdf]

LocalSolver 4.0: hybrid math programming.

In

Boston, US-CA. [pdf]

T. Benoist, J. Darlay, B. Estellon, F. Gardi, R. Megel (2013).

Mathematical programming by local search.

In

Exeter, UK. [pdf]

T. Benoist, J. Darlay, B. Estellon, F. Gardi, R. Megel (2013).

LocalSolver: toward a full mathematical programming solver based on local search.

In

Rotterdam, The Netherlands. [pdf]

T. Benoist, J. Darlay, B. Estellon, F. Gardi, R. Megel (2013).

LocalSolver: toward a full mathematical programming solver based on local search.

In

Roma, Italy. [pdf]

T. Benoist, J. Darlay, B. Estellon, F. Gardi, R. Megel (2013).

Mathematical programming by local search.

In

Paris, France. [ppt] [pdf]

T. Benoist, J. Darlay, B. Estellon, F. Gardi, R. Megel, K. Nouioua (2012).

LocalSolver: a mathematical programming solver based on local search.

In

Berlin, Germany. [pdf]

T. Benoist, J. Darlay, B. Estellon, F. Gardi, R. Megel, K. Nouioua (2012).

ROADEF/EURO/Google Challenge: how a 100-line LocalSolver model qualifies for the final round.

In

Vilnius, Lithuania. [pdf]

T. Benoist, J. Darlay, B. Estellon, F. Gardi, R. Megel, K. Nouioua (2012).

LocalSolver: black-box local-search for combinatorial optimization.

In

Vilnius, Lithuania. [pdf]

T. Benoist, J. Darlay, B. Estellon, F. Gardi, R. Megel, K. Nouioua (2012).

LocalSolver: black-box local-search for combinatorial optimization.

In

T. Benoist, J. Darlay, B. Estellon, F. Gardi, R. Megel, K. Nouioua (2012).

LocalSolver: black-box local search for combinatorial optimization.

In

Centre Paul Langevin, Aussois, France. (

T. Benoist, F. Gardi, A. Jeanjean (2012).

Optimization of advertisement revenue for the French TV group TF1.

In

Vilnius, Lithuania. [pdf]

F. Gardi (2012).

High-performance local search for TV media planning on TF1.

In

Vilnius, Lithuania. [pdf]

T. Benoist, B. Estellon, F. Gardi, A. Jeanjean, K. Nouioua (2011).

Local search for mixed-integer nonlinear optimization: methodology and applications.

In

Clamart, France. [pdf] [pdf]

T. Benoist, B. Estellon, F. Gardi, A. Jeanjean (2010).

Recherche locale pour un problème d'optimisation de tournées de véhicules avec gestion des stocks.

In

(A. Hadj-Alouane, H. Pierreval, eds.). Hammamet, Tunisia. [pdf]

T. Benoist, B. Estellon, F. Gardi, K. Nouioua (2010).

Toward Local Search Programming: LocalSolver 1.0.

In

Lisbon, Portugal. [pdf]

T. Benoist, B. Estellon, F. Gardi, K. Nouioua (2010).

Toward local search programming: LocalSolver 1.0.

In

Bologna, Italy. [pdf]

F. Gardi, K. Nouioua (2010).

High-performance local search for a large-scale energy management problem.

In

Lisbon, Portugal. [pdf]

T. Benoist, B. Estellon, F. Gardi, S. Jain, A. Jeanjean, E. Patay (2009).

Inventory routing optimization for bulk gas transportation.

In

T. Benoist, B. Estellon, F. Gardi, A. Jeanjean (2009).

High-performance local search for solving real-life inventory routing problems.

In

(T. Stützle, M. Birattari, H.H. Hoos, eds.),

Springer, Berlin, Germany. [pdf]

F. Gardi (2004).

A sufficient condition for optimality in mutual exclusion scheduling for interval graphs and related classes.

In

(A. Oulamara, M.-C. Portmann, eds.), pp. 154-157. Nancy, France. [pdf]

LocalSolver 4.0 : programmation mathématique hybride.

In

Rennes, France. [pdf]

T. Benoist, J. Darlay, B. Estellon, F. Gardi, R. Megel (2014).

LocalSolver 4.0 : nouveautés et benchmarks.

In

Bordeaux, France. [pdf]

T. Benoist, J. Darlay, B. Estellon, F. Gardi, R. Megel (2014).

LocalSolver: a new kind of math programming solver.

In

Paris, France. [pdf]

F. Gardi (2013).

Toward a mathematical programming solver based on neighborhood search.

In

Nantes, France. [pdf]

T. Benoist, J. Darlay, B. Estellon, F. Gardi, R. Megel (2013).

Vers un solveur de programmation mathématique généralisée basé sur la recherche locale.

In

Troyes, France. [pdf] [pdf]

J.-Y. Lucas, D. Marcel, T. Benoist, F. Gardi, R. Megel (2013).

Une modélisation LocalSolver pour le placement des assemblages combustibles en piscine.

In

Troyes, France. [pdf]

T. Benoist, J. Darlay, B. Estellon, F. Gardi, R. Megel, K. Nouioua (2012).

LocalSolver 2.0 : premier solveur de programmation mathématique fondé sur la recherche locale.

In

Angers, France. (

F. Gardi (2012).

C'est quoi la RO : des théorèmes ou des logiciels ?

In

Angers, France. (

T. Benoist, B. Estellon, F. Gardi, R. Megel, K. Nouioua (2011).

LocalSolver : un solveur boîte noire a base de recherche locale pour l'optimisation combinatoire.

In

Paris, France. (

T. Benoist, B. Estellon, F. Gardi, R. Megel, K. Nouioua (2011).

LocalSolver 1.x : un solveur boîte noire à base de recherche locale pour la programmation 0-1.

In

Lyon, France. [pdf]

T. Benoist, B. Estellon, F. Gardi, R. Megel, K. Nouioua (2011).

Vers une programmation par recherche locale : LocalSolver 1.1.

In

Saint-Étienne, France. [pdf] [pdf] [video] [video]

T. Benoist, B. Estellon, F. Gardi, R. Megel, K. Nouioua (2011).

Génération automatique de voisinages de grande taille pour la recherche locale autonome.

In

Saint-Étienne, France. [pdf]

F. Gardi (2011).

Recherche locale haute performance pour la résolution d'un problème riche de tournées d'inventaires.

In

Paris, France. (

F. Gardi, K. Nouioua (2011).

Recherche locale haute performance pour la gestion moyen-terme du parc nucléaire français.

In

Saint-Étienne, France. (

T. Benoist, B. Estellon, F. Gardi, K. Nouioua (2010).

Vers une programmation par recherche locale : LocalSolver.

In

Toulouse, France. [pdf]

T. Benoist, B. Estellon, F. Gardi, A. Jeanjean (2009).

Algorithme de recherche locale pour la résolution d'un problème réel de tournée d'inventaires.

In

Paris, France. [pdf]

T. Benoist, B. Estellon, F. Gardi, A. Jeanjean (2009).

Recherche locale haute performance pour l'optimisation des livraisons de gaz industriels par camions-citernes.

In

pp. 49-50. Nancy, France. [pdf]

F. Gardi (2009).

Composition optimale d'équipes d'athlétisme.

In

pp. 81-82. Nancy, France. [pdf]

B. Estellon, F. Gardi, K. Nouioua (2008).

Recherche locale haute performance pour la planification des interventions à France Télécom.

In

pp. 69-78. Nantes, France. [pdf]

B. Estellon, F. Gardi, K. Nouioua (2008).

Recherche locale haute performance.

In

pp. 189-190. Clermond-Ferrand, France. [pdf]

F. Gardi, T. Benoist (2008).

Programmation de campagnes publicitaires sur les chaînes thématiques du groupe TF1.

In

pp. 203-204. Clermond-Ferrand, France. [pdf]

B. Estellon, F. Gardi, K. Nouioua (2007).

Une heuristique à base de recherche locale pour la planification de tâches avec affectation de ressources.

In

Grenoble, France. [pdf]

F. Gardi, A. David (2006).

Optimisation de plans de financements immobiliers.

In

pp. 167-172. Nîmes, France. [pdf]

F. Gardi, A. David (2006).

Optimisation de plans de financements immobiliers.

In

Lille, France. [pdf]

B. Estellon, F. Gardi, K. Nouioua (2005).

Ordonnancement de véhicules : une approche par recherche locale à voisinage large.

In

pp. 21-28. Lens, France. [pdf]

B. Estellon, F. Gardi, K. Nouioua (2005).

Ordonnancement de véhicules dans les usines Renault : une approche par recherche locale à voisinage large.

In

pp. 33-34. Tours, France. [pdf]

B. Estellon, F. Gardi, K. Nouioua (2005).

Ordonnancement de véhicules dans les usines Renault : une approche par recherche locale à voisinage réduit.

In

pp. 35-36. Tours, France. [pdf]

F. Gardi (2003).

Planification d'horaires de travail et colorations de graphes.

In

Paris, France. [pdf]

F. Gardi (2003).

Planification d'horaires de travail et théorie des graphes.

In

pp. 99-100. Avignon, France. [pdf]

- Mr. Philippe Baptiste (examiner), Strategy & Innovation Director, MESR/DGRI
- Mr. Yves Caseau (examiner), Executive Vice President, Bouygues Telecom
- Mr. Philippe Chrétienne (examiner), Professor of Computer Science, Université Pierre et Marie Curie
- Mr. Gérard Cornuéjols (examiner), Professor of Operations Research, Carnegie Mellon University
- Mr. Michel Gendreau (reviewer), Professor of Operations Research, École Polytechnique de Montréal
- Mr. Jin-Kao Hao (reviewer), Professor of Computer Science, Université d'Angers
- Mr. Geir Hasle (reviewer), Chief Research Scientist, SINTEF ICT
- Mr. Marc Sevaux (examiner), Professor of Computer Science, Université de Bretagne-Sud

This dissertation deals with

When a solution space is gigantic, a complete search becomes unpractical. Given a (possibly infeasible) solution to the problem, local search consists in modifying some parts of this one - that is, some decision variables - to reach a new, hopefully better solution. Exploring a so-called

First, an iconoclast

Nevertheless, software applications based on local search induce extra costs in development and maintenance in comparison with the direct use of mixed-integer linear programming solvers. We present the

F. Gardi, T. Benoist, J. Darlay, B. Estellon, R. Megel (2014).

FOCUS Series in Computer Engineering, ISTE Wiley, 112 pages.

ISBN 9781848216860

- Mr. Alain Colmerauer (examiner), Professor of Computer Science at Aix-Marseille II University
- Mr. Gérard Cornuéjols (examiner), Professor of Operations Research at Carnegie Mellon University
- Mr. Dominique De Werra (reviewer), Professor of Operations Research at École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne
- Mr. Frédéric Maffray (reviewer and president), CNRS Research Director (G-SCOP, Grenoble)
- Mr. Jean-François Maurras (examiner), Professor of Computer Science at Aix-Marseille II University
- Mr. Michel Van Caneghem (examiner and advisor), Professor of Computer Science at Aix-Marseille II University

The

The first two chapters of the thesis deal with the complexity of the problem for interval graphs, as well as two extensions, circular-arc graphs and tolerance graphs. When the problem is proved to be polynomial, we propose some simple and efficient algorithms for its resolution (in particular linear time and space algorithms).

Motivated by practical aspects, we also analyse the impact of the following property on the complexity of the problem: the graph

The last chapter is devoted to partition problems related to interval graphs. We investigate particularly the problem of partitioning interval ou circular-arc graphs into proper interval subgraphs, for which the following proposition is established: any interval graph admits a partition into less than

The main results of my thesis have been announced in the following note:

F. Gardi (2006).

Mutual exclusion scheduling with interval graphs or related classes: complexity and algorithms.

From my thesis have been published the 4 following papers which contain some updated proofs:

F. Gardi (2007).

The Roberts characterization of proper and unit interval graphs.

F. Gardi (2008).

Mutual exclusion scheduling with interval graphs or related classes. Part II.

F. Gardi (2009).

Mutual exclusion scheduling with interval graphs or related classes. Part I.

F. Gardi (2011).

On partitioning interval graphs into proper interval subgraphs and related problems.

Thesis: "Toward a mathematical programming solver based on local search". ISBN 9781848216860

Reviewers: Prof. Michel Gendreau, Prof. Jin-Kao Hao, Dr. Geir Hasle.

Thesis: "Ordonnancement avec exclusion mutuelle par un graphe d'intervalles ou d'une classe apparentée : complexité et algorithmes". [pdf]

Advisor: Prof. Michel Van Caneghem. Reviewers: Prof. Dominique De Werra, Dr. Frédéric Maffray. Summa cum laude.

Thesis: "Sur certains problèmes de planification d'horaires de travail". [pdf]

Advisor: Prof. Michel Van Caneghem. Magna cum laude.

Thesis: "Étude de la complexité de quelques variantes de l'algorithme de tri Quicksort". [pdf]

Advisor: Prof. Michel Van Caneghem. Magna cum laude.

I am:

- president of the French Operations Research and Decision Support Society (ROADEF) since 2014
- nominated member (A2 college) of the National Committee for Computer Science (CoNRS, section 6) since 2012
- member of the scientific and executive committees of the GdR RO (CNRS GdR 3002) since 2012
- member of the improvement board of the Computer Science Department of Tours University since 2012
- member of the improvement board of the Computer Science Department of Nantes University since 2014

- treasurer of the French Operations Research Society (ROADEF) over 2012-2013

I was qualified to the position of Lecturer (2006-2010) by the section 27 of CNU. I make most of my teaching activities at the Luminy Faculty of Sciences of the Aix-Marseille University. I also speak as part of operations research courses given by Frédéric Meunier at École Nationale des Ponts et Chaussées, by Marie-Christine Costa at École Nationale Supérieure des Techniques Avancées (ENSTA ParisTech), by Nadia Brauner at École Nationale Supérieure de Génie Industriel (Grenoble INP), by Sana Berraf-Belmokhtar at École d'ingénieurs de la Chambre de commerce et d'industrie de Paris (ESIEE Paris). Here is a sample of the courses that I have given: "Introduction to computer science and computer programming", "Turing: from secret codes to universal machines", "Local search: methodology and industrial applications", "Industrial applications in operations research". Overall, I have completed 300 hours of teaching for various student audiences.

Since my arrival at Bouygues e-lab in 2007, I have mentored several brilliant students during their graduation internship: Thibaud Cavin (ENSIMAG, Grenoble), Lucile Robin (École Centrale de Lyon), Saul Pedraza Morales (École des Mines de Nantes), Romain Megel (École des Mines de Nantes), Sofia Zaourar (ENSIMAG, Grenoble), Boris Prodhomme (École Polytechnique, Palaiseau), Clément Pajean (ENSTA, Palaiseau). In addition, I mentored several students for the Fondation Francis Bouygues. From 2008 to 2011, I supervised, with Philippe Baptiste (LIX, Palaiseau) and Thierry Benoist (Bouygues e-lab), the PhD thesis of Antoine Jeanjean (Bouygues e-lab & LIX) entitled "Local search for mixed-variable optimization: methodology and industrial applications" (defended the October 10th, 2011 at École Polytechnique, Palaiseau).

I was a member of various scientific committees: the Young Researchers Prize at ROADEF 2012 and ROADEF 2013, the stream "OR applications and software" at ROADEF 2014, the program of PGMO-COPI 2014, the program of ROADEF 2015. I was a scientific expert for the French National Research Agency (ANR) and the Fonds québécois de la recherche sur la nature et les technologies (FQRNT). I was examiner of the PhD thesis of Ariel Waserhole.

I was a reviewer for some national (JFPC, ROADEF) and international (AISC-Calculemus 2002, LAGOS 2009) conferences, for the international journals

I participated in the European project IST-2001-35304 AMETIST (Advanced Methods for Timed Systems), for which I have written 5 research reports. In addition to the conferences mentioned above, I was invited to present my works in several research seminars: LIF (Marseille), G-SCOP (Grenoble), Bouygues e-lab (Paris) [pdf], LIX (Palaiseau), EDF R&D/OSIRIS (Clamart) [pdf].

Innovation 24

264 rue du Faubourg Saint-Honoré

75008 Paris, France

+33 (0)9 72 31 98 43